Primary Source Documents

More Equal Than Others (Influencing the Political Process)

The Gerry-mander

First broadside printing of Gerry-mander map of Essex County. Salem, Mass., 1812.


2020 Census

Gain/Loss of seats in the U.S. House of Representatives based on population change


Electoral College Resolution

Proposed amendment to abolish the Electoral College. March 16, 2005. 


Citizens United Resolution

Proposed amendment to "limit the corrosive influence of money in our democratic process." January, 2015.


Doris "Granny D" Haddock

Political activist Doris "Granny D" Haddock speaking in support of campaign finance reform.


DC Vote - Firefighters Poster

Political poster for voting rights in Washington, D.C. 


Laws & Sausages (The Separation of Powers)

United States Constitution

Articles, I, II, III 


A Visit to the Big Store

Political cartoon, circa 1912.


Making Sausage - Chicago

Photograph, circa 1905. 


United States v. Nixon

Opinion Announcement - July 24, 1974 Chief Justice Warren E. Burger. 


Richard Nixon's Resignation Letter

August 9, 1974. 


Presidential Vetoes

Chart of presidential vetoes by The American Presidency Project. 


Voting Rights

First Vote

Illustration in Harper's weekly, November 16, 1867.


American Indian and Alaska Native as a Percentage of County Population


Alone or in combinationation with another race (2010)

Death at the Polls

Skeleton holding shotgun at polls to prevent African Americans from voting. Published 1879.



Suffragists casting votes in New York City, ca. 1917. 


Voting Rights Act of 1965

An act to enforce the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 


Lyndon Johnson

Signing of the Voting Rights Act, August 6, 1965.


A Balancing Act (The Federal Budget)

The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor

Lithograph published in 1846. 


16th Amendment Resolution

The 16th Amendment, ratified February 3, 1913. 


The New Man on the Job

Published 1913. 


Total Federal Revenue

Total Federal Revenue, 2015.


Total Federal Spending

Total Federal Spending, 2015. 


Senator Robert Taft, 1940

Taft finds tearing the budget a difficult task. Washington, D.C., Jan. 2, 1940. View Source


Fair is Not Always Equal (Federalism and States' Rights)

U.S. Constitution, Article 6


The 10th Amendment


Governor George Wallace

Governor George Wallace attempting to block integration at the University of Alabama. 


Loving v. Virginia

Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. 


Ruby Bridges

U.S. Marshals escort Ruby Bridges to school on November 14, 1960. 


Same-Sex Marriage Laws

Same-sex marriage laws prior to 2015 U.S. Supreme Court ruling.


The Executive Branch

The Trial of Andrew Johnson


(magazine cover) 


Executive Orders

WWI Recruitment Poster


Commander in Chief

President Clinton meeting with foreign leaders (photo)


Interpreting Data

Iraq War protest 


Conflict Over Money

National Parks Service Locations


Veto Power

President Trump veto message


The Judicial Branch

Constitution and the Courts

U.S. Constitution, Article III


Mapping Court Creation

Judicial Circuits 2020 (map)


Lady Justice


Impeachment in the News

Impeachment of Judge Ritter


FDR's Courtpacking Proposal

Appointment of Federal Court Judges

Judicial Vacancies